[Goyang] Bukhansanseong Fortress
|Address||375, Daeseomun-gil, Deogyang-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do.|
Bukhansanseong Fortress was constructed in Baekje King Gaeru 5th year (132) as the northern fortress to protect the place, when Baekje set up its capital city in Wiryeseong in Hanam-si. At this time, Baekje's main force won against Goguryeo's forces. After that, it became the central fortress of 'Bukjeong' forces in accordance with advance northward policy of King Geunchogo of Baekje. However, in the King Gaeru 21st year (475), Goguryeo forces attacked it for seven days, and the fortress was finally fallen. As a result, the King Gaero was also captured and killed. Due to this battle, Baekje moved its capital to Woongjin fortress, and Baekje and Silla fought together against Goguryeo. In the King Jinheung 25th year (603) August, Silla conquered Hanseong region, which was then Baekje's region. Also, in the King Jinpyeong 25th year (603) August, Goguryeo General Go Seung attacked Silla's Bukhansanseong Fortress, but Silla's King Jinpyeong protected it with 10,000 forces. Furthermore, in the King Muyeol 8th year (661) May, Goguryeo General Noeeumsin attacked Bukhansanseong Fortress for 20 days with Mohe general Saeng Gae. At this time, the lord of Bukhansanseong Fortress, Dong Tacheon, protected the place with 2,800 people, including the residents. This period was after Silla overthrew Baekje with the help of the Tang Dynasty, and Baekje revival force tried to fight back. If Bukhansanseong Fortress was fallen to Goguryeo, the result of Silla's unification could have been different. Due to this battle, the lord Dong Tacheon was promoted to Daenaema. The Chronicles of the Three States praised this battle greatly. In 1232, during King Gojong era in Goryeo Dynasty, there was battle with Mongolian forces, and the King Hyeonjong of Goryeo moved the shrine of King Taejo to this place in order to avoid invasion. At this time, the fortress was fortified, and in 1387, during the King U era of Goryeo, there was another reconstruction work. By the Joseon Dynasty, there were Japanese invasion and Manchu war. As a result, there was a need to fortify the fortress, and in 1711 the King Sukjong 3rd year, the King ordered a massive construction; stone fortress in the size of 7,620 paces was completed. As for the size of the fortress, there were 13 gates, including Daeseomun Gate, Dongbukmun Gate, and Bukmun Gate. Also, Dongjangdae was on Sidanbongsang, and to the northeast of Nahanbong, there were Namjangdae Jungseongmun, and to the northwest, there was Bukjangdae. Jeungheungsa had 136 gan size of large temple, Jungheungsa. Inside the fortress, there were 99 wells and 26 reservoirs. During the King Sukjong era, prime minister of the Joseon Dynasty was positioned as leader of defense and Samgunmun of royal training force was all arranged. Even today, Daeseomun still exists after its restoration, and only a part of the fortress are damaged. Yet, the whole figure of the fortress is still preserved. Furthermore, recently, Daeseong, Daenam, Daedongmun and Jeungseongmun were restored as well.